The main difference between these two referencing systems is how the references are presented in-text.
At the end of a sentence, Harvard referencing uses (author, date and page) for direct quotations and close paraphrasing. Exceptions to this are (author-date) for not so close paraphrasing. If in text you are drawing on a specific author’s work you can put the date after the name, for example Frank (2012) articulated. However, that is regarded as the only instance that you should reference in a sentence. There are two variations of the Harvard referencing system: American Psychological Association (APA) and Modern Language Association (MLA).
MLA is a hybrid of Harvard referencing, and is widely used within linguistics and modern literature. The only difference between standard Harvard and MLA is that the year of publication is not included in-text.
APA or American Psychological Association is the standard for psychology, translation studies, and social sciences. It adheres to the author, date, page system in-text. In reality, there are very few differences, except the referencing list is called references in APA.
The Chicago referencing style is most popular within arts and humanities faculties and is in its 16th edition. It is important to emphasise that this is the sixteenth edition, as the fifteenth edition of the referencing style incorporated in-text referencing. Chicago referencing does not use in-text citations like Harvard referencing and the author instead has the freedom to use endnotes or footnotes. Endnotes appear at the end of a document, before the bibliography and footnotes appear at the end of each page.
There are advantages and disadvantages to each system. Using the Harvard referencing style, the reader is able to see exactly where the reference has come from. However, many argue that it breaks up the reading of the piece and is inconvenient, for example, if you referred to six different sources in a text, it can appear inelegant. Chicago referencing, makes the reading of a piece more fluid, as there are only numbers next to the text to identify the footnotes/endnotes, yet many others argue that the number system can become confusing due to having to reference in different formats. With any referencing style, the chances are that your institution will have created a course-specific guide – some of these are hybrids of many styles, while others adhere to strict Harvard referencing. There are many adequate online referencing sources that can help you. Our highly professional proofreaders check your in-text citations, your footnotes, endnotes and referencing lists with a fine-tooth comb for accuracy. Why would you want to spend hours worrying over the placement of a full-stop, when you could let us do the worrying for you?